Internasjonale nyheter

Cross-Journal Initiative Helps Manuscripts Take Flight

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All properly executed science deserves to be published as quickly as possible. One common frustration of scientists related to publication speed is the review-rejection cycle that in action resembles a cross between cycling on a hamster wheel and jumping through a hoola-hoop. To offer authors a way out of this cycle of delay, PLOS launched a journal transfer initiative earlier this year that provides authors an alternative to starting from scratch for papers not initially accepted by a subset of PLOS journals.

How It Works

Manuscripts submitted to PLOS Computational Biology, PLOS Genetics, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases or PLOS Pathogens undergo the usual rigorous peer review. The paper’s editors assess the reviews and if they decide the work does not meet the journal’s criteria for perceived novelty or impact but is sound, well-designed and well-executed, they will offer acceptance and publication in the multidisciplinary journal, PLOS ONE. Publication can take place in as little as three weeks after the offer is accepted by the authors.

Papers which merit publication will go through the peer review and revision process only once, saving authors, reviewers and academic editors time, speeding the way to publication for quality research.

Why It Works

The benefit to authors is that instead of rejecting the paper outright, editors now may use the decision letter to offer either immediate publication or publication after minor revisions. Importantly, to move the paper along faster for authors – rather than moving the goal posts – the same academic editor will consider the revision. This also ensures consistency of the feedback to authors and expedites the work for editors. Provided the authors agree to the offer, the manuscript will be published in PLOS ONE with both the original date of submission to PLOS Computational Biology, PLOS Genetics, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases or PLOS Pathogens and the name of that journal’s academic editor listed in the article’s metadata. As for all articles published by PLOS, this metadata appears together with citation, copyright, data availability, funding and competing interest information.

Open In Order To Succeed

PLOS has piloted this initiative over the past six months and we’re pleased to report that with substantial support from journal editorial boards and uptake from authors, we will continue this initiative that relieves authors, reviewers and editors of some of the repetition involved in publishing while bringing quality work to the public, faster. There are now notifications of the program on the relevant journal Editorial and Peer Review Process pages. Alongside existing manuscript transfer routes between PLOS journals, this newest initiative offers an effective means for scientists to rapidly communicate ideas, results and discoveries to each other and to the broader public.

Open Access has changed the way readers and researchers around the world discover, use and reuse the scientific literature. Open data provides opportunities for new analysis, new discovery and even previously unrecognized new directions in research. Together with open source software, open source hardware and preprint servers, forward movement along the path toward a more Open Science has the potential to expand the venues, styles, and frequency of sharing work. Let your manuscript take flight! PLOS authors who take this opportunity for rapid publication in PLOS ONE can play an active role in accelerating the discovery and dissemination of their work. With International Open Access Week right around the corner, what better motto to adopt than Open In Order To Succeed—for it is success that we seek for reviewers, editors and most importantly, all authors.

Lasker Award for Public Service Honors Planned Parenthood Federation of America

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“It is the commitment and impact [of the organization] that is the key concern.” —Alfred Sommer, Chair of the Jury, 2017 Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award

The mission of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation is to improve health by “accelerating support for medical research through recognition of research excellence, education and advocacy.” Each year, Lasker Awards are given to scientists that embody this mission. Organizations are also eligible for awards through the Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award that alternates years with the Lasker~Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science.

 

Dr. Alfred Sommer; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

This year’s recipient of the Public Service Award is Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), “for providing essential health services and reproductive care to millions of women for more than a century.” PPFA began in Brooklyn, New York, where in 1916 Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the US; in 1942 the organization changed its name from The American Birth Control League to Planned Parenthood. To place the 2017 Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award in context, PLOS interviewed Chair of the Jury Alfred Sommer, University Distinguished Service Professor and Dean Emeritus, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

With this award, PPFA joins other collaborative efforts including Médecins Sans Frontières, Bill & Melinda Gates and the NIH Clinical Center as Lasker Public Service Awardees. Since recent previous awardees in this category were individuals, PLOS asked Sommer what does this say about how science and medicine work today, or about the efforts needed to impact human health. “The intent of the Public Service Award has always been recognition of contributions to expanding investments in biomedical/health research and advancing the public’s health,” he responds. “In recent years there has been slightly greater attention paid to the latter, and therefore to the individuals and institutions that have made a real difference.”

Sommer was circumspect and honest when asked to reflect on the timing of the committee’s decision process, in relation to political discourse in the US at that time over the proposal to replace the Affordable Care Act with a plan that would defund approximately 40% of Planned Parenthood’s annual budget. “The discussion is always free-wheeling, and every member is free to raise whatever perspectives they like,” he says. “I am not at liberty to discuss the actual vote, but I can say there was broad agreement with this year’s choice (as there usually is every year, once the discussion and votes are taken).” He continues that the Lasker Awards are “meant to recognize extraordinary achievements, and bring these achievements to the attention of the public. It was no different in this case.”

The origin story of Planned Parenthood is fascinating. While family planning may be the founding service, it’s likely the public doesn’t realize the breadth of services offered by the organization, from sex education programs that reach 1.5 million people annually to over 4 million tests and treatments to both men and women (in 2015 alone) for sexually transmitted infections. “The purpose of all Lasker Awards is to better inform the public about the individual, work, and organization that is being honored,” says Sommer. In recognizing PPFA, he continues, “we would hope that the public will have a better understanding of all the contributions to health made by PPFA.”

While publications and publicity are not a requirement for receipt of the Public Service Award, placing this type of information into the public domain helps to inform policy and to improve health outcomes. Among the PLOS journals, two articles have corresponding or contributing authors affiliated with PPFA. In the recent PLOS ONE article, “Parents’ views on sex education in schools: How much do Democrats and Republicans agree?” researchers from Planned Parenthood found that comprehensive sex education is supported by a vast majority of parents, both Democrats and Republicans.

In the PLOS Medicine article, “Comparison of Outcomes before and after Ohio’s Law Mandating Use of the FDA-Approved Protocol for Medication Abortion: A Retrospective Cohort Study” researchers followed outcomes of a law that took effect in 2011 requiring abortion providers to follow specific US Food and Drug Administration guidelines, created in 2000, when giving patients a combination of two drugs to induce abortion. Their findings, covered by The Guardian and Los Angeles Times, indicate that women experienced a higher rate of complications and were nearly three times more likely to require additional medical intervention after the law was implemented.

Some say that receiving a Lasker Award hints at prediction of a Nobel Prize. To put this attention to awards and prizes in context, it’s worth understanding the compelling origins and motivations of the Lasker Foundation directly from “The Lasker Legacy” video. After watching you might want to make your voice heard through suggested resources on the PLOS Stand Up for Science webpage. Work from individual scientists receiving this year’s Lasker Awards is described in a previous post.

 

Image Credit:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Doug Jordan; Public Health Image Library

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Alfred Sommer is University Distinguished Service Professor and Gilman Scholar, Johns Hopkins University; Dean Emeritus and Professor of Epidemiology and International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Professor of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He served as Dean of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health from 1990-2005. Sommer is a member of both the National Academy of Science and the National Academy of Medicine, and chaired the Board (on which he still serves) of the Lasker Foundation from 2008-2014. His research interests include outcomes assessment, child survival, epidemiology of visual disorders, glaucoma, vitamin A deficiency, blindness prevention strategies, cost-benefit analysis, the growing interface between medicine and public health, and clinical guidelines. He is most widely known for and received the 1997 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award for his work on Vitamin A therapy for preventing infections and blindness. Sommer served as Chair of the Jury for the 2017 Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award.

Fundamentals of Cell Growth Regulation, HPV Vaccine Development and Planned Parenthood Reap 2017 Lasker Awards

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Each year, the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation recognizes research excellence with a set of three awards given for major advances in the “understanding, diagnosis, treatment, cure or prevention of human disease.” This year’s awards were given for Basic Medical Research, Clinical Medical Research and Public Service.

The Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award was given to Michael N. Hall for discovery of and investigations into “nutrient-activated TOR proteins and their central role in the metabolic control of cell growth.” TOR (Target of Rapamycin) is a highly conserved protein and a central regulator through its role as a nutrient sensor, coupling nutrient availability to protein synthesis and cell growth. A critical signaling protein, TOR forms multiprotein associations that function as distinct clusters, either as TORC1 (TOR Complex 1) or TORC2 (TOR Complex 2), depending upon those additional proteins. In their 2007 PLOS ONE article, Hall and colleagues identified novel TOR interacting proteins specific for each complex, investigating the role of phosphorylation and complex function for each. More recently, work from the Hall group published in PLOS Genetics demonstrated a role for TORC1 in bone formation and, in yeast cells, characterized the signaling state of the TORC1 complex with the use of antibody tools.

The Lasker~DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award was jointly awarded to John Schiller and Douglas Lowy for their collaborative efforts, innovations and ”technological advances that enabled development of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines for prevention of cervical cancer and other tumors caused by human papillomaviruses.” Papillomavirus infection on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals can cause benign warts (papillomas) or malignancies, especially anogenital carcinomas, and in genetically predisposed or immunocompromised individuals can cause skin cancer. Development of safe and effective vaccines has potential to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other malignancies resulting from HPV.

Schiller and Lowry collaborated on three articles published with PLOS. In the early days of PLOS Pathogens, they demonstrated that carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, was an extremely potent infection inhibitor for sexually transmitted genital HPVs. Their most recent joint publication (also in PLOS Pathogens) investigates papillomavirus in various mouse models, to gain insights into immune system influences on infection progression in humans. These articles, together with results of a clinical trial of bivalent HPV vaccination have received nearly 83,000 views. For further reading in PLOS journals, view Schiller’s  and Lowy’s publication lists.

The Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award alternates years with the Lasker~Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science. For more on this year’s Public Service Award, given to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, check back next week for our interview with Chair of the Jury Alfred Sommer.

In publishing their work Open Access, these outstanding scientists and citizens advance medicine, public health and basic research for the benefit of all. PLOS celebrates their work and dedication.

 

Image Credit: Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation

Celebrating the 10th Anniversary of the Cape Town Declaration

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In celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Cape Town Open Education Declaration, a group of open education activists met in Cape Town in March 2017 to reflect on progress made by the community over the last ten years, celebrate our accomplishments, understand the challenges, and inspire new directions. After several months of continued conversation and collaborative development, the group agreed upon a set of ten key areas where the open education movement can grow in the next decade. 

Cape Town Open Education Declaration 10th Anniversary: Ten Directions to Move Open Education Forward was launched today during a satellite event at the 2nd World OER Congress in Ljubljana, Slovenia. During the workshop, themes from the project were highlighted by members of our network: Jan Gondol from Slovakia, Michal Kaderka from the Czech Republic, and Alek Tarkowski from Poland.

A writeup of the ten directions has been published on the Cape Town Declaration website and in a booklet distributed at the Congress.

The ten directions are:

  • Communicating Open
  • Empowering the Next Generation
  • Connecting with Other Open Movements
  • Open Education for Development
  • Open Pedagogy
  • Thinking Outside the Institution
  • Data and Analytics
  • Beyond the Textbook
  • Copyright Reform for Education
  • Opening up Publicly Funded Resources

The 2017 meeting in Cape Town and the collaborative development of the writeup were supported by the William and Flora Hewlett, Mozilla, Open Society, and Shuttleworth Foundations. The collaborative development process was coordinated by Centrum Cyfrowe, SPARC, the MIT Media Lab, the Open Education Consortium, and Creative Commons, working with a broad group of contributors who are leading open education in their communities.

Follow the conversation at #CPT10.

To Sign or Not to Sign: A Slice of Transparency in Peer Review

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Scientists depend on the proper evaluation of research that creates the foundation for future work, and the public expects curated scientific content to be trustworthy. All forms of peer review, whether for ethical, technical and sound science criteria or for additional novelty, significance and perceived impact help ensure rigor in scientific research.

There is, however, community and public skepticism regarding the quality, trustworthiness and authenticity of the review process, from the initial stage of evaluation before reviewer assignment to the final editorial decision. Making peer review more transparent, at any stage, has the potential to revitalize the process and restore trust in the system.

Efforts to increase transparency in peer review should address challenges that include:

Reshaping Peer Review

Change is already happening as the scientific community develops variations on themes of open and transparent, and as publishers provide more peer review offerings that range from community participation to open but anonymous, to fully open and signed reviews. While not yet functioning at scale, experiments incorporating more transparent ways to discuss and assess papers over the entire lifecycle of the research are inching their way into practice. This way, the publication of an article isn’t the single defining event in its life; it is just one chapter of its story. Many of the arguments in favor of increased transparency in peer review also hold true in the discussion of benefits of preprint submissions. According to researchers working with neuroimaging, as stated in their PLOS Biology Community Page, “preprints allow the wider community to give feedback to the authors about the manuscript and potentially improve it, which is beneficial for both the authors as well as the journal the paper will be submitted to. For example, the present paper received useful comments from three individuals in addition to the appointed peer reviewers.”

A Question of Signing

At PLOS, we’ve looked at one slice of transparency in peer review—signed reviews made available exclusively to the authors. In a research project that used a survey mechanism to collect experiences and opinions, our Publishing Operations team underwent an assessment of reviews from 2013-2016 in three of the PLOS journals (PLOS ONE, PLOS Medicine and PLOS Computational Biology).

“Our reviewer community is particularly engaged, and that’s what makes working at PLOS on this issue so exciting. Together we will be able to create solutions, both incremental and substantial, that bring constructive feedback to authors and transparency to the review process.” Helen Atkins, PLOS Director of Publishing Operations

Some of what we learned is that reviewers who were not in the habit of signing reviews simply had never been asked, or were not sure of the benefits. But it’s not as easy as just educating in these areas. These scientists also indicated that not signing allows them to be more honest and safe from retribution. We also discovered that signing can improve reviewer accountability and constructiveness, and help authors learn of a reviewer’s area of expertise. Authors who favored receiving signed reviews valued having this additional information as it provides potential for more open communication, moving research forward. The full results of this project, presented by Elizabeth Seiver, PLOS Researcher and Helen Atkins are part of the Editorial and Peer-Review Process Innovations Session on Tuesday, September 12 during the International Congress on Peer Review and Scientific Publication.

Simple but Substantive Practices

In the PLOS ONE article “Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals,” the focus is a general aspect of transparency in peer review—how academic journals (and/or publishers) present their peer-review process to the public. According to the authors of this study, a transparent peer review system “conveys to readers and potential contributors how the peer review is implemented and how articles are selected for publication.” The researchers found that “author’s ratings of peer-review transparency predicted their assessment of the quality of peer-review at that journal.”  Even small changes in practices and on publisher websites can help in this area. In addition, guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics, “Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing,” stating that all journal content apart from editorial material should be subject to peer review from outside experts must be met.

Learning from Early Career Researchers

Many ECRs do not get appropriate training on how to prepare or review manuscripts. Improved transparency in peer review would not only satisfy mid-to senior-level scientists, but in providing some form of open dialogue or open accountability it enables these scientists to lead by example and provide mentorship to the next generation of reviewers.

Young and upcoming scientists have plenty of ideas when it comes to improving transparency in peer review. At PLOS, we received over 150 essays on how to revamp peer review from Early Career Researchers applying for our ECR Travel Award Program. These creative young scientists described what they consider to be characteristics of the optimal peer review process and how they might build this process either from scratch or using aspects of existing practice.

Their ideas, edited for brevity, include:

  • Invite reviewers to publish reviews of the article (should they wish to reveal their identity) as an accompanying commentary, for no additional fee. If reviewers know they could gain an additional publication for their efforts, this would motivate them to review more articles and respond in a constructive and timely fashion. Victoria Leong; orcid.org/0000-0003-0666-9445
  • [Provide] incentives for reviewing that encourages kind, open but fair responses; we would also be affecting a positive change in the culture of science; which will advance the science itself. Rebecca Gelding; orcid.org/0000-0003-4883-8075
  • Reviews should be open, archived and after publication, reviewers should be revealed. This aims to ensure two aspects of quality control: reviewers take more seriously their job since it will be public with their name tag on it; and reviewing records can be used when considering career development. Juan Rocha; orcid.org/0000-0003-2322-5459
  • Review record should also be one of the criteria judging and advancing a researcher’s professional development. Knowing that a reviewer’s identify would be revealed later and shared among peers, a reviewer would have more incentive to avoid giving low-quality comments. Xiao-Peng Song; orcid.org/0000-0002-5514-0321
  • A transparent, open review process may promote accountability among reviewers. A peer reviewer whose dated comments are published as supplementary material with the article has a greater incentive to conduct a thorough and timely review of the manuscript. These same published comments could also be accessed by other researchers who are struggling to address similar issues in their own studies. Sericea Stallings-Smith; orcid.org/0000-0002-4876-9965
Slices of the Transparency Pie

Solutions that will help peer review achieve its scholarly ideal are not untenable; the challenge lies in that they must satisfy a diverse researcher and stakeholder community. While some improvements are easier to implement than others, even small slices that expedite and enrich the process of assessment in fundamentally new ways contribute to advancing science and discovery for the broader scientific community.

Publishers have an opportunity to improve both speed and efficiencies: to improve review forms that may be cumbersome or insufficient to provide thoughtful and constructive feedback to authors and to provide training for reviewers and editors that mitigate potential bias. Additional possibilities include direct or facilitated mentoring of early career researchers to improve their understanding of the principles of peer review and how it is practiced within the scientific community. Imagine the impact of a global editorial and reviewer contributor community, appropriately trained, recognized and incentivized.

For more insights on peer review listen to the following PLOScast episodes and read the following posts on The PLOS Blogs Network. PLOScasts PLOS BLOGS

 

Image Credit:

Etsy; FuzzyButtFarm

Tensions in Scientific Culture Contribute to Reproducibility Challenges

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“Once a system is running a certain way it’s hard to change course.”—Richard Harris, award-winning science correspondent for National Public Radio

Scientists, publishers, journalists and the public talk of the problem of reproducibility in experimental science. There are committees, symposia, peer-reviewed articles, blogs and opinion pieces documenting the issue and exploring remedies to the challenge of reproducibility. NPR science correspondent Richard Harris takes this societal challenge one step further in his book with a title that in no uncertain terms calls attention to the root cause of the reproducibility challenge—Rigor Mortis: How Sloppy Science Creates Worthless Cures, Crushes Hope and Wastes Billions.

PLOS interviewed Harris about the lack of rigor in experimental research that he describes in his book, and from a discussion that covered materials standards, publishing fewer papers with greater confidence, text and data mining and the cultural shift required to improve the rigor in science, one unifying theme emerged—tension. Tension between evaluation and culture, hands-on training and coursework, between making work public and ensuring its reliability, and between responsible reporting and satisfying the needs of a news organization.

These lines of tension contribute to the current structural rigidity in the culture of science that, according to Harris, make scientific rigor a difficult challenge to address. As he delved into biomedical sciences in 2014 after nearly a decade reporting on climate change and the environment, Harris took a broad look at the state of the research enterprise and asked, what are the consequences of limited funds on the structural influences supporting the current state of academic biomedical research?

Evaluation and Culture

The biggest obstacles influencing rigor, according to Harris, are the “underlying cultural issues” that confront science. He cites the financial crunch, career pressures and the hyper competitiveness of science, particularly in biomedical sciences, as examples. These are, he thinks, also the hardest problems to solve. “Even if you poured huge amounts of new money into biomedical research this problem would not go away quickly. It’s changing a mindset.” Fundamentally the “incentives are misaligned,” says Harris, to reward numbers of papers and how many of them are published in high profile journals, rather than “careful work where one is highly confident in results.”

Hands-on Training and Coursework

On the point of experimental responsibility, Harris’ book follows a path of practical recommendations to improve scientific rigor, including:

  • Improve experimental design and provide methods training
  • Validate cell lines, antibodies, gene constructs
  • Apply appropriate statistical analysis
  • Disclose experimental and analytical methods

During his research for the book, Harris was quite surprised to find out how little formal training there is in experimental methodology, particularly in biomedical research. He did note, however, that NIH is now funding attempts to develop curriculum, following an unsuccessful search to find the best training courses in the country to replicate. There is “huge room for improvement” in this area, he says, but how to integrate this into a training program? Changing a system that’s already in place to accommodate that is difficult, especially without reward and recognition for faculty teaching those courses. “Should it start more robustly at the end of the undergrad career?” One potential solution discussed during the interview is for post-docs to teach these courses to incoming graduate students, as part of a summer or first-quarter orientation program.

Making Work Public and Ensuring Reliability

Steps can be taken to improve the situation. For example, researchers with grants from the National Institutes of Health are required to authenticate the cell lines used in their work. “There’s no simple solution to be imposed from top down, it needs to also work bottom up,” says Harris when considering what key additional recommendations the community might consider. “Young scientists are more open to sharing and that leads to transparency, that helps solve some of the issues.” It’s not a silver bullet but it improves things if people can put their data out there, he says. Increased sharing and transparency addresses a number of these issues, and “to the extent that the culture of the young scientist is open to that, that’s great. Although it’s hard for them to change the culture, but over time this can help.”

A “more nimble publication system might encourage scientists to publish confirmatory or negative results,” Harris states. When asked specifically about the role of preprints and alternative forms of science communication, he acknowledges that experiments in openness and transparency are interesting although it’s unclear how successful they will be. Will that additional literature be less reliable, he wonders? “It’s the job of the entire community, not simply the scientist who makes a claim, to figure out what’s right and what’s wrong,” he says, when discussing the viable options of prepublication sharing of work and use of blogs and commenting as forums for peer review. However, as a science journalist, he ponders: “Do we want more literature out there or do we want more strict checks and less literature? Personally, I would like to see less literature, have people spend more time thinking about what they’re doing and being sure they’re right.”

Responsible Reporting and News Flow

Science journalists can help the issue of scientific rigor, acknowledges Harris. “They should step back from doing the story of the day. It takes more time to think about things from a broader perspective, but that’s more important than ever.” Science journalists must find a balance between that and satisfying the needs of their news organizations. Even an award-winning science correspondent like Harris admits that he needs to think differently about how he does his job on a day to day basis. “Look at what’s published and fits into the broader trend and context of similar results, and what it means elsewhere,” he recommneds. These are results that should be the focus of science journalists.

Easing the Tug of War

The good news is that many institutions now evaluate candidates for jobs and promotions based on a set limit of publications, chosen by the author to best represent their contributions to science. Additional efforts to broaden evaluation within the constraints of the existing scientific culture include recognition and credit for reagent validation, peer review activities and training others on experimental responsibility. Dedicating more time to thinking and less time to drafting and revising manuscripts may not the working philosophy of many labs or the culture of science, but it’s an issue getting attention and was expressed as a concern by leaders of the organization Rescuing Biomedical Research.

Everyone has a stake in the current structure of the scientific enterprise, says Harris, from journals caring about impact factors [PLOS de-emphasizes journal impact factors] to deans making sure scientists draw in funding and overhead for their institutions.

“The biomedical research enterprise is driven by economics; economic systems are much harder to change and that should be something the overall enterprise should be thinking about—how to rethink that.”

Harris believes clinical medicine in the 1990s experienced similar cultural stresses, but ClinicalTrials.gov, a web-based resource from the National Library of Medicine that provides public access to information about clinical studies and the availability of experimental drugs, got people “past some of these issues without making them rethink their place in the scientific universe.” Hopefully academic biomedical research can do the same.

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Richard Harris, science correspondent for National Public Radio (NPR) received the 2010 Kavli Science Journalism Award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) for his reporting on BP’s Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. He also received the award in 1988 and 1995. He currently covers biomedical sciences with a focus on investigative stories and in 2014 completed an eight-part series examining the stresses on biomedical research in the US caused by fluctuating funding levels.

 

Tug of War Image Credit: falco; pixabay.com

 

A Publishing Milestone to Celebrate: 200,000 PLOS Research Articles and Counting

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In 2003, PLOS published its first research article and this month we’re proud to announce that we have now published more than 200,000 research articles across our seven Open Access journals. It has been an amazing journey to reach this milestone.

“In only 14 years of existence, PLOS has helped catalyze the rapid growth of the Open Access literature. The 200,000th article is a remarkable milestone for PLOS and for the scientific community that has supported the Open Access movement.”-Veronique Kiermer, PLOS Executive Editor

We’d like to take this opportunity to thank those who have helped rapidly create this large corpus of diverse, Open Access research:

PLOS was incorporated in 2001 as an Open Access advocacy organization and became a publisher to prove the value of Open Access, beginning with PLOS Biology in 2003 and PLOS Medicine in 2004 as open alternatives to prestigious subscription journals. In 2005, PLOS launched PLOS Genetics, PLOS Pathogens, and PLOS Computational Biology as proof of concept to show that research communities built around and across specific areas and disciplines could thrive with an Open Access model. In late December 2006, PLOS ONE spearheaded the innovative editorial approach focused on evaluation of research independent of perceived impact; this editorial approach has now been adopted by journals from nearly every scientific publisher. Since its founding, PLOS ONE has published more than 175,000 research articles based on three compelling features: advancing quality science for everyone, moving publication forward in all scientific disciplines, and favoring speed to publication over subjective assessment of significance.

In 2007, with the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, PLOS launched a fourth community journal, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Together with the journal’s leadership and global community, we now proudly celebrate the 10th Anniversary of PLOS NTDs and the more than 4,500 research articles that contribute to advances in the field.

Open Access continues to gain momentum but there is further work to be done. At PLOS, we are constantly looking for ways to use emerging technology and new ideas to open up scientific communication—to make it faster, more efficient, more connected and more useful. We look forward to the next 200,000 articles and continued involvement with the scientific community.

Workshops using Storyweaver in Nepal and Ethiopia – get involved as translator now!

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Over the last three weeks, we at the Global Digital Library have conducted workshops in Nepal and Ethiopia, as a part of the initial phase of our project. These user tests are an important part of our work as they provide us with initial user feedback on prototypes and personas. For both workshops, we have made prototypes based on a great mix if content and tech from different open sources and OER projects including resources from Storyweaver by Pratham Books. 

Localization using Storyweaver

Localization and translation will be an important part of our work and as a point of reference, we have tested both our own tool for localization and a tool developed by Storyweaver.

We at the GDL project are in the early stages of developing our platform, but if you want to join the community of translators now, you can start using Storyweaver. Our friends at Storyweaver have developed a great website with stories and books that you can read or translate into you own language.

To prepare our workshops we made this tutorial that also can serve as the first practical introduction for anyone that wants to join our movement of translators, using the Storyweaver platform. Check out this 4-minute video to get you going!

PLOS Supports Net Neutrality to Ensure Global Access to the Scientific Literature

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PLOS works to remove barriers to public access of scientific research. Typically, these barriers are considered in terms of copyrights and journal subscriptions, but unfettered access to network infrastructure also contributes to supporting readers’ access to scientific literature. In simple terms, unencumbered dissemination of scientific research depends on a fair Internet. The provision of a fair and open Internet lies in the hands of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and government agencies that regulate these providers. PLOS supports today’s Day of Action in the United States, led by Battle for the Net, aimed at publicizing the issues surrounding Open Internet Rules and their critical role in maintaining Internet freedoms as currently in place.

In February 2015, the US Federal Communication Commission (FCC) reclassified broadband providers as common carriers rather than information providers under Title II of the Communications Act of 1934, the law that continues to regulate modern communication modes such as the Internet. This gave the FCC authority to ensure that established, large corporations including AT&T, Comcast and Verizon can’t block, slow (throttle) or otherwise interfere with Internet traffic. Innovations in online businesses and services, including those of PLOS, have thrived under Title II regulations. Importantly, these regulations in the US provide each and every user of the Internet a guarantee that ISPs and government regulators treat all data on the Internet the same, without discriminating against or charging differentially by user, content, website, platform, application, type of equipment or mode of communication (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_neutrality). These protections are known as net neutrality; scientists and those working to support the scientific endeavor rely on net neutrality for unprejudiced access to databases, the literature and information services.

Allowing ISPs to sort traffic based on content, sender and receiver opens the door for corporate and government censorship which would greatly hinder access to scientific information around the globe.

To protect against this type of restriction in information flow, the first EU-wide Net Neutrality rules were adopted in October 2015 with public guidelines released by the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications in late 2016.

In the US, the current FCC Commissioner wants to weaken these protections and this could have consequences for all scientists, not just those in the US: access to information around the world could become pay to play without these protections. Services provided by publishers such as PLOS and other providers could be restricted for all our users around the world, unless we pay for priority access to our content. This will affect any Internet traffic that routes through the US, from services relying on servers located in the US to requests that are routed through the US. For instance, most of the Domain Name Server (DNS) requests for South America, Central America and the Carribbean are routed by servers located in Florida.

Today, July 12, 2017, is a Day of Action in support of a fair and open Internet. Visitors to the PLOS.org homepage (www.plos.org) and active PLOS staff blogs (The Official PLOS Blog, EveryONE, PLOS Biologue, Speaking of Medicine, PLOS Channels and Collections, PLOS Tech and PLOS Podcasts) will see a message of explanation and letter of support for net neutrality in the form of a pop up window. This message will appear only today, once per site, per device. Visitors to these web pages can choose to either immediately close the pop up by clicking on the x in the upper right or fill in the four boxes to send a message to the FCC in support of its current Open Internet Rules and the efforts to dissuade FCC Chairman Ajit Varadaraj Pai from his plan to roll back these rules. Public comment continues for an additional 60 days following the Day of Action. Form letters or personalized comments may be sent directly from https://www.battleforthenet.com/.

PLOS is purposefully not placing this notice on any journal content or information pages, so that access to our content is not impeded in any way.

To learn more about net neutrality around the globe, visit https://www.thisisnetneutrality.org/; to learn more about the Day of Action visit https://www.battleforthenet.com/july12/.

2nd OER Policy Forum in Warsaw

European Open EDU Policy Project -

For two days in Warsaw, over 40 experts, activists and officials from 23 countries were discussing the best way to create and implement public policies on openness in education at national and international levels. The perfect opportunity for doing this was the second OER Policy Forum, organized on 1-2 of June by Centrum Cyfrowe (the first Forum was organized in 2016 in Kraków, as a side event to the 2016 OE Global conference).

We are very happy that we had the opportunity to host public administration officials also this year. We appreciate that the representatives from the Polish government joined us at the Forum  – Grzegorz Zajączkowski, Advisor to the Minister of Digital Affairs, and Rafał Lew-Starowicz, Deputy Director at the Ministry for Education.

Together with the participants of the Forum, we discussed how to implement stronger open education policies across Europe. We discussed how OER can be created and shared by public institutions, and how to better raise awareness among educators and students.  One of the main aims of the Forum was also to plan shared activities and ways, in which we can support each other in our work.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FvmutjoON3U

What was especially important for us was the participation of representatives from our region. This year we had pleasure to guest representatives from Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Scotland, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,Ukraine, United Kingdom. There were also representatives outside of Europe, from the United States.

During the Forum this year, we wanted to:

  • Identify common challenges and needs in the context of open education policies.
  • Identify projects where future cooperation is possible – at local, regional and supra-regional levels
  • Get acquainted with the state of public policies regarding open education in every country.
  • Share experiences among Open Education coalitions and alliances, working across Europe.
Photo: Łukasz MatczakCommon challenges

We have discussed common challenges during the workshop conducted by Alek Tarkowski: “Mapping the OER Policy space”.


One of the most frequently indicated challenges by the participants was the constant need of raising public awareness about the benefits of open education and developing a stable, good cooperation with public administration.  The role of good advocacy is crucial  for better implementation of OER policies. Nicole Allen from SPARC conducted a workshop on how to advocate for Open Education Policies. We view the OER Policy Forum as a platform for exchanging experiences between public administration, experts and activists; therefore, we are very happy that we had the opportunity to host high level officials this year as well.

Photo: Łukasz Matczak

An important moment and opportunity to discuss open education is the ongoing debate in the European Union devoted to copyright reform. The role of copyright in the development of education was also one of the most important topics during this year’s edition of the Forum. Teresa Nobre from Creative Commons Portugal conducted a workshop, which was an opportunity for discussing the changes necessary in copyright so that it stimulates the education development. One of the points of reference here was the International RightCopyright.eu campaign organized by Communia Association – more about the campaign and proposed changes can be found here. The campaign is already over but you can still sign the petition for better copyright for education or share your story on how copyright affects teaching and learning.

Photo: Łukasz Matczak

During our keynotes session, three speakers highlighted projects and developments that highlight new aspects of OER policies:

 

First and foremost – cooperation Photo: Łukasz Matczak

Group sessions devoted to open education policies and to their implementation in practice gave the opportunity to exchange experiences regarding ongoing projects. Among the initiatives presented, there were “Open Scotland”,OER World Map”, Open Education projects in France, Open Education Factory Platform, Radical Openness – Svět médií Group,  Leicester City Council School’s Extranet.

Photo: Łukasz Matczak Photo: Łukasz MatczakOpen education across EU

Forum participants could get acquainted with the state of OER public policies in individual countries. Fabio Nacimbieni and Javiera Atenas (UNIR iTED) gave a presentation on the the initial results of a study run by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre  on Open Education policies across all EU member states. This was later followed by two series of short speeches when over a dozen of countries were presented – to give a broader overview on the state of OER  policies in Europe and the US.

Photo: Łukasz Matczak

This year, special attention was paid to Slovenia, where the UNESCO 2nd OER World Congress will be held in September. With other forum participants, we aim to continue discussions initiated in Warsaw at a satellite event of the Congress.

Photo: Łukasz MatczakOpen Education Policy Network in CEE

On May 31, the day before the Forum started, a workshop was held for representatives of organizations dealing with openness in Central and Eastern Europe, which was devoted to cooperation among countries from the region: POland, Czech, Slovakia, Romania, Slovenia, Hungary, Estonia, Belarus and Germany. The aim was to develop a common narrative regarding the creation and implementation of openness policies so that we could speak with one voice in the international debate and thus reach a broader audience. At the workshop, we launched an informal coalition of organizations in the region, whose members will support each other, exchange experiences and carry out joint projects. More about our network and its first members can be read here.

 

Photo: Łukasz Matczak

The 2nd edition of OER Policy Forum was organized with the support of William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and Open Society Foundations Information Program.

Immediate and Lasting Impact: Top Ten New Species of 2017

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The unique morphology of the spiny ant, uncovered with the use of an advanced form of 3D microscopy known as 3D X-ray microtomography, garnered this species a place this year among the Top 10 New Species of 2017. The Top 10 New Species list honors the legacy of Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus, known for his pioneering work on the hierarchical classification of plants and animals that developed beyond genus and species into modern taxonomy. The list is compiled by the International Institute for Species Exploration (IISE) working with a panel of international scientists as selection committee members.

SUNY-ESF President Quentin Wheeler. (Photos for SUNY-ESF by M.J. Okoniewski)

PLOS spoke with Quentin Wheeler, founding director of IISE and president of the College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York, on assessing research impact, the purpose and influence of this list and the impact of climate change on species diversity.

Policies and Purpose

Research reporting these new species is published in a variety of journal types, from subscription to Open Access. When asked if there are considerations of access to research when the members of the international selection committee evaluate nominations, Wheeler states that “the selection committee is encouraged to focus on the organisms rather than where they were published.” This de-emphasis on journal choice is a hallmark of the IISE selection process; work that is posted on a preprint server, rather than published in a peer-reviewed journal, may also be eligible for consideration. “What matters is compliance with the international codes of (botanical and zoological) nomenclature which requires publication that can now include electronic publication. So long as the requirements of the code were met during the previous calendar year, a species is eligible for consideration,” he says.

In an era of continued global extinction of animals, plants and microbes, Wheeler hopes the Top 10 New Species list brings research outcomes to the public that help convey the acute relevance of climate change. “Our goal is to increase awareness of the loss of species in the biodiversity crisis and the important roles played by taxonomy and natural history museums in biodiversity exploration and conservation. The wide media attention gained by the Top 10 (and this year’s PLOS ONE article) has hopefully played a role toward that goal,” he says. While he is not aware of specific policies shaped directly by the list, the hope is that it “keeps the importance of species exploration in the minds of those making such policies.”

Valuing Work, Not Impact Factor

Over the past 10 years of generating this list, one notable detail is that selected work is published in journals with impact factors ranging from less than one to greater than 20. When asked what this says to him and the scientific community about the value and relevance of evaluating a work based on its own merit, rather than on the journal in which it appears, Wheeler is quite direct.

“As a scientist and scholar, I like to think that science is a meritocracy of ideas and that their value derives from the quality of the work and its impact rather than the impact factor of the journal overall. Taxonomy is a very special case that is not at all served well by impact factors as they are today calculated.”

He explains this concept more fully. “First, the best taxonomic work is comprehensive and comparative in the form of lengthy taxonomic revisions and monographs. Such long works are not accepted by most journals with high impact factors. Second, even the best taxonomic work is rarely cited because once species are known they are typically identified by field biologists through secondary literature (field guides, etc.). Even the secondary literature is often omitted from citations by ecologists and others, and the primary literature is only rarely cited outside of other taxonomy papers.” Due to the long-term nature of taxonomy work, “we routinely consult papers from 1758 forward,” says Wheeler. “Thus the true impact of the work is measured over generations which is quite different from most experimental fields where papers are outdated in just a few years.”

Last year two species on the list made their debuts in PLOS ONE: the description of a new Galapagos giant tortoise species and a new genus, species and subfamily of isopod crustacean. Together with this year’s winner and the four PLOS ONE articles describing top species in 2014, this cohort of articles has collectively received over 290,000 views, 3,500 shares and broad media coverage since publication, indicating their influence and interest for taxonomists and the public at large.

Connectivity and Credit

As with other scientific disciplines, innovation and modernization are a must in taxonomy, and Wheeler is in favor of such policy shifts. First, he recommends mandating a “central deposition of all nomenclatural acts, including descriptions of new species” as it now takes several years to track down all new species named in any given year. He also believes “the actual technical description of species should be open access, even in journals that are not. The descriptive material should be intellectual property of humankind and available to everyone.”

Further modernization, according to Wheeler, would establish electronic connectivity between published work and the central repository. “That central repository, likely IPNI for botany and ZooBank for zoology,” he says, “ought to be connected via hyperlink to every scientific name published. Were this done it would be a service to editors by assuring the correct scientific name is being used and spelled correctly. Also by virtue of that link we could electronically track the usage of scientific names and give “impact” measure of the use of the names as credit to the taxonomists.”

PLOS encourages scientists making these discoveries to publish the entire research article, not just the technical data, in fully Open Access journals and repositories to ensure the work has maximum visibility and reach. ORCID iDs can help in linking taxonomy descriptions, datasets, published work and grants to individual researchers for maximum credit and recognition. Those interested in learning more about the biodiversity crisis can watch a brief interview with Quentin Wheeler and those interested in learning more about new species and biodiversity can browse this selection of PLOS articles.

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Quentin Wheeler is founding director of the International Institute for Species Exploration and president of the College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF) in Syracuse, New York. He was previously vice president and dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University, chair of entomology and director of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium at Cornell University, Head of Entomology at the Natural History Museum in London and Director of the Division of Environmental Biology at the National Science Foundation.

 

Hero Image Credit: ESF

 

Getting the Impact Factor Genie Back in the Box

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On occasion The Official PLOS Blog presents Thought Leadership interviews with scientists leading the way on issues integral to the transformation of science communication and advancement of Open Science. Previous interviewees include Bruce Alberts and Trevor Bedford. Here we present our conversation with Sandra Schmid from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.

 

Image Credit: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Over the years, Sandra Schmid has gained a reputation for academic strength and leadership, most recently as Professor and Chairman of the cell biology department at University of Texas Southwestern (UTSW) Medical Center. She’s also gained a reputation for her honesty regarding varied issues, including the position of post-docs, “if it were a job, we’d pay you better and give you retirement benefits,” the training of faculty, “few of us as mentors, as Principal Investigators, were ever taught how to run a lab or how to mentor individuals” and how she participates in open discussion of research before publication “mostly over beers.”

Schmid has been particularly vocal about the misuse of journal impact factors (JIFs) as a way to evaluate researchers and, as she claims, “the unfortunate consequences to the scientific community of their misuse.” At UTSW, Schmid’s home institution, there has been no overt discussion among the leadership regarding JIFs and where faculty should choose to publish. There is no formalized preference for high impact journals. “In fact, we celebrated the founding of eLIFE [a journal which rejects the use of JIFs] and have faculty on the Editorial Board of the journal,” says Schmid. The JIF was “never intended to and indeed does not measure the quality or impact of the individual papers in a journal,” says Schmid. It was originally developed and commercialized by Eugene Garfield to help librarians decide on which journals they should spend their subscription dollars.

“Individuals and institutions are being spuriously judged – by other scientists, funders, governing bodies and administrators – based indirectly on JIF, rather than directly on the quality and impact of their work,” Schmid wrote in “Negative Consequences of the Misuse of Journal Impact Factors for Scientific Assessment” as part of the 8th Forum on the Internationalization of Sciences and Humanities.

Flawed Statistics

The JIF is a statistic calculated based on the average citations of a selection of papers in a given journal. One major problem with the JIF is that citations are highly skewed, with most articles receiving fewer citations. Since citation distributions are skewed, averages are meaningless. “Indeed,” writes Schmid, there are journals that “flaunt their JIF in marketing material to authors that would ironically not accept papers reporting such flawed statistics.” This skewed distribution was clearly demonstrated last year through a collaboration between multiple publishers, including Université de Montréal, Imperial College London, PLOS, eLife, EMBO Journal, The Royal Society, Nature and Science (see Measuring Up: Impact Factors Do Not Reflect Article Citation Rates). The analysis, posted on bioRxiv, showed that citation distributions of journals with clearly distinct impact factors greatly overlap—in other words that all journals publish many papers with similar lower numbers of citations, and few highly cited papers.

A Better Option: Citation Distributions

The authors of the bioRxiv analysis call for publishers to make publicly available the actual citation distributions of their journal’s articles, rather than rely on irrelevant and misleading JIFs. Since journals use many different techniques to artificially increase their impact factor, including publication of review articles (which are often more highly cited than the original research papers they review) and front matter, including commentary and mini-review articles (that generate citations but are not counted as “citable” content) comparison across journals is problematic. It is hoped that public disclosure of article citation distributions will lead to more granular comparisons and better informed decisions by authors on where to submit their work.

Then and Now

From the perspective of a senior investigator with a long-established career and history of publishing quality work at all tiers of influence, what has changed for Schmid when deciding where to publish is that in the past, “journals had different purposes and different scopes” and that was good. Before there was the JIF there was an understanding of what journal went with what type of data. “We sent our best biochemistry to Journal of Biological Chemistry; our best cell biology to Journal of Cell Biology. If we happened upon a new and potentially important discovery, even before we understood mechanism, we’d communicate it rapidly in Science and Nature because they were three figure papers.” Before the advent of supplemental materials, more meaty, in-depth studies were published in non-page limited, subject-specific journals.

When asked in the post-print era, how do researchers decide where to publish, Schmid replies, “That is the unfortunate part.” A lot of the decisions are being made by postdocs telling her about impact factors, although she cautions that “publishing in high impact factor journals doesn’t mean it’s high quality work.” Early career researchers are looking at numbers as a distinguisher between journals, says Schmid, so her efforts are focused on getting these scientists to think more broadly. Her response and recommendation? First and foremost is to choose the journal where the work will get in front of the audience that matters the most. Schmid is crystal clear when outlining her main considerations for deciding where to publish her work and the work from her lab:

  • Are the people who handle my paper able to identify qualified referees?
  • Are the editors going to understand the discussion and criticisms and be helpful in handling my papers; do they understand my field?
  • Do my peers read and respect the content in this journal?
Unintended Consequences

The real question for Schmid is how to get the “impact factor genie” as she calls it, “back in the box.” Why is this so important? Scientists and publishers often focus on the limitations of JIFs and the benefits of evaluating work at the article rather than journal level. However, there are more than just limitations to the JIF. According to Schmid there are very “specific and unintended consequences of the abuse of JIF as a tool for individual and institutional assessment.” Many of these, she notes, are direct; others are subtle, downstream ramifications:

  • Deferred communication of discoveries that might launch new fields as reviewers and editors demand more information per paper
  • Discouraged follow-up or augmentative studies to verify results due to over-interpretation of findings for the purpose of artificially inflating a work’s value
  • Misguided evaluation of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and junior faculty by their individual papers rather than the combinatorial impact of their work in context
  • Wasted time and resources spent satisfying unnecessary demands of reviewers and editors in high-impact journals
  • Demoralized early career researchers forced to package an entire thesis or postdoctoral project into one comprehensive paper
A Better Option: Article-Level Metrics

Perhaps wanting to get that impact factor genie back in the box was more than a mistaken mixing of two idioms. The difficulty of reverting to a situation that formerly existed (putting the genie back in the bottle) combined with the repercussions of doing something that causes unexpected and unintended negative consequences (opening a Pandora’s box) does describe the situation the scientific community has with JIFs. Fortunately, this is not an impossible situation to remedy. Article-Level Metrics were developed by PLOS as a better means to assess research value in an electronically networked world. They are gaining acceptance across a broad swath of the scientific community, from scientists to funders and more, since they provide granularity, breadth and proximity (PLOS ALMs are updated daily to monthly, depending on source and age of the individual article). ALMs also allow different scholarly research outputs to be tracked, such as policy impact, datasets, software and code. Schmid also recommends simply using PubMed as a portal for assessing the influence of an article, stating, “from title to abstract to download is a good metric,” although not as complete as a suite of ALMs.

Leadership in Practice

In 2013 as Schmid took up the position of Chair of the Department of Cell Biology at UTSW, she offered an employer’s manifesto (published as a Science Careers column) on the approach her department would take in hiring new assistant professors. This manifesto promised “a better job of screening applicants—and to avoid inappropriate criteria such as journal impact factors.” The idea was to encourage applications from qualified candidates who “might feel sidelined because their paper has yet to be, or perhaps won’t be, published in a high-impact journal.” Schmid closed her column with an enthusiastic “Let’s run this experiment!” Four years later, she shared some of the results with PLOS. Using their Academic Jobs portal the entire faculty is engaged in viewing applicants and every candidate that has piqued the interest of even one faculty member is interviewed via Skype, removing the need for reaching a ‘consensus’ that might rely more on JIFs. Those few candidates whose programs are most likely to thrive in the department’s specific environment are invited to campus to visit. Since taking this approach “our new faculty are indeed thriving,” says Schmid.

This approach suggests that a reduction on emphasis of JIFs in favor of more constructive and meaningful measures of evaluation, both quantitative and qualitative, fosters an assessment program that is both fair and thoughtful. This is how science should be; if it works for people it can work for research outputs as well.

*************

Sandra Schmid is Cecil H. Green Distinguished Chair in Cellular and Molecular Biology, Professor and Chairman, Department of Cell Biology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. She was co-founding editor of Traffic, Editor-in-Chief of Molecular Biology of the Cell and president of the American Society for Cell Biology. Schmid was elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and Vice-Chair of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Scientific Advisory Committee.

Postcard from Bucharest: Open Education Romania 2017 conference

European Open EDU Policy Project -

On 15th May, the 2017 edition of the Open Education Romania conference took place in the National Library in Bucharest. The event was organized by Asociatia pentru Tehnologie si Internet – ApTI and the Center for Public Innovation, together with the Open Government Partnership team from the Romanian government. Among attendants were teachers and educators, librarians and open education activists from the Coaliția pentru Resurse Educaționale Deschise – the Romanian OER coalition.

Radu Puchiu, State Secretary in the Prime Minister’s Chancellery and head of the OGP Romania team opened the event, and highlighted recent policy developments in Romania. In 2016, Romania has adopted its third OGP National Action Plan, which includes commitments to build a national OER repository in 2017 and develop a nationwide OER policy by 2018.

In this context, Daniel Bojte from the Ministry of Education spoke about ongoing work on developing open, digital textbooks. The Ministry started the digital textbooks program in 2011: the program sees the digital version as complementary to the printed one. All textbooks produced so far, over 40, are freely available on the Ministry’s website but the copyright remains with the publishers. The Ministry is looking for legal and technical options to create open textbooks. In the same session Jan Gondol from Slovak Alliance for Open Education and Alek Tarkowski from Polish Coalition for Open Education shared experiences from their countries.

The second session of the event was devoted to the issue of ongoing European copyright reform, and its effects on education. Bogdan Manolea from ApTI led a panel discussion joined by a group of legal experts from our region: Maja Bogataj Jančič from Creative Commons Slovenia, Lucie Straková from Creative Commons Slovakia and Valentina Pavel from ApTI. During the session, Valentina presented the “Right Copyright” campaign, which aims to create copyright law that better supports education in Europe. The campaign has been localised in Romanian by members of the coalition.

The conference was an opportunity for a broad range of supporters of OER in Romania to meet, including librarians, teachers and educational activists.

Open Education policy activists from countries in our region: Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia and Poland.

The Romanian Open Educational Resources Coalition may be reached on Facebook @ facebook.com/groups/REDRomania/ , an inviting place for everyone willing to share experiences and disseminate good practices. The Romanian coalition has also another point for dissemination, a blog @ educatiedeschisa.ro.

PLOS Appoints Alison Mudditt Chief Executive Officer

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PLOS is pleased to announce the appointment of Alison Mudditt as its Chief Executive Officer, effective June 19, 2017.  For the past six years Mudditt served as Director of University of California Press (UC Press) where she ushered in new strategies to lead the company into the digital age, including the innovative journal and monograph Open Access programs Collabra and Luminos. Prior to UC Press, Mudditt was Executive Vice President at SAGE Publications, Inc., leading publishing programs across books, journals and digital platforms. Her 25 plus years in the publishing industry include leadership positions at Blackwell Publishers in Oxford, UK, and Taylor & Francis Inc., in Philadelphia, US. Mudditt received her Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Bath and her Masters in Business Administration from The Open University.

“PLOS is truly privileged to bring on board a person of Alison’s caliber whose extensive experience in and deep knowledge of academic publishing will invigorate a renewed focus on our mission—transforming research communication to better serve authors, readers and the public,” said Gary Ward, Chairman of the Board at PLOS. “Her history and accomplishments as a leader, coalition builder and strategic thinker for organizations experiencing change is impressive and will prove very valuable to PLOS in the years ahead.”

“I am delighted to join a like-minded publisher in PLOS, which fully embraces the Open Access principles that drive its mission,” said Mudditt. “PLOS’ long-held reputation as a change agent in this industry provides a tremendously gratifying challenge as we continue to push the boundaries of what is possible in scientific publishing.”

Beyond Slogans: After the March for Science Has Passed

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“Science and democracy are logical allies, they both flourish with an open network of ideas, evidence and an uncompromising examination of results.” – Cindy Schaffer, former microbiologist with the Environmental Protection Agency

Clever slogans, such as “May the Facts Be with You” or “There Is No Planet B” flourished at the Earth Day March for Science as scientists and supporters of science around the globe chanting “Less Invasions More Equations” and “All Six American Nobel Prize Winners Last Year Were Immigrants” took to the streets demanding attention to the tangible impact of science on humans “Do You Have Polio? Thank A Scientist” and the environment “Ice Has No Agenda, It Just Melts.”

It is powerful for scientists and science-based organizations to show how important scientific facts are to everyday life, irrespective of political alignment, but what happens to this momentum after the collective advocacy effort has passed? What difference does it make, many have asked, and what role should each of us play, considering daily professional and personal commitments and demands on our attention and time. These are the issues faced by every social movement in search of long-lasting tangible impact.

Science Not Silence

The official slogan of March for Science, “Science Not Silence,” is a phrase that has potential to propel advocacy beyond the day of the march. “Because the results of scientific research benefit our everyday lives, we have taken for granted that science would be a vital, respected part of discussions about societal issues that impact health, the environment, technology and other science-based issues,” says Erika Shugart, Executive Director at the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB).

“This is no longer the case. If science is not represented and advocated for, then it will be ignored or, even worse, replaced by discredited information,” she continues. “We can no longer be silent and assume science will be at the table, we must stand up for science.”

“My interpretation [of “Science Not Silence”] is that we need to use science and evidence-based scientific results to inform government policy and that we, as scientists, need to speak up about our research rather than staying silent,” says Elizabeth Blaber, Visiting Research Scientist at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View. “More often than not, scientists get caught up in their research, writing grants and publishing papers; we forget that our results can really make a difference to the general population. We can use our results to help inform policymakers about important decisions that they need to make about climate policy, research funding, health care policies and the next step for NASA’s human exploration endeavors,” she says.

Blaber cites the unique insight scientists working as government contractors have into government science and the bureaucracy of government agencies. “Science not silence means education to us, educating policymakers on the importance of each scientific study that is being conducted in and outside of government agencies and how these studies collectively make all of our lives better in an unimaginable number of ways.”

Beyond the March

How we harness the excitement and momentum of the march and translate that into action is not a single solution for each scientist or scientific discipline. “When you ask ‘what next?’ that’s when I run into difficulty,” says Dan Schaffer, former National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Weather Research Software Engineer. “We can march every week all day long but in the end, there are far more important and difficult decisions we have to make if we are to do something significant about the issue of climate change, for example.” For some scientists, this means bringing scientific evidence into daily habits (and convincing others to do the same). “Here in Prius driving, solar panel powered Boulder, Colorado, folks like to talk about what we’re doing about climate change.” Yet some of these same climate scientists “fly as far as Australia for climate change conferences,” he says. “One round trip from Denver to London is equivalent to driving one of those Prius 9,000 miles. That trip to Sydney? 16,000 miles.”

Individual behavioral changes can, collectively, make an impact. March for Science provides easy opportunities on their Week of Action page. For example, by clicking on ‘Science Connects Saturday’ (available everyday) you can send an email to your representatives just by filling in a few form fields. The relevant representative is determined automatically by your zip code entry. ‘Science Discovers Monday’ leads to suggestions for game night fun, science-style.

For some, follow up from the March for Science means being more open and emphatic, publicly, about what is evidence-based science and what is not. “As a former microbiologist at the Environmental Protection Agency, it disheartens me to hear that we have to prove that science matters,” says Cindy Schaffer. “The more active we, as scientists, can be in promoting real science,” she continues, “the better chance we will have for the false news to remain false in the general public’s mind.”

The message “Science Is Nonpartisan” took to the streets as a demonstration of “This Is What Democracy Looks Like.” These slogans call out for participation of the public in open, honest and constructive discussion. Says ASCB’s Shugart, “It is up to scientific societies and other organizations to help harness this energy to be a force for good in our communities.” Several organizations make it easy to participate, as we choose, in the democratization of science. Visit the PLOS Stand Up for Science page to learn how; email communications@plos.org if your professional association or society is taking action and wants to be listed on Stand Up for Science.

 

Image Credit: Bob Hemstock

NDLA technology reused by 8000 websites worldwide

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Over the last couple of years, the NDLA team have been working to replace Flash based applications and interactive learning objects. NDLA also needed a tool to make it easy to create, share and reuse HTML5 content and applications. We started developing a new tool in public-private partnership with Joubel, a tech startup in Tromsø, in the northern part of Norway. This collaboration ended up as a project and product called H5P.

H5P is at the time of writing installed on over 8,000 websites. H5P is reused by many universities, large companies and smaller personal websites worldwide. It´s great to see this kind of reuse and in the long run, this will make the platform more sustainable, also for NDLA.

The team developing and designing H5P have been set up with the best product developers from NDLA and designers and developers from Joubel. This kind of public-private partnership is essential to NDLAs innovation process.

In H5P, all you need is a web browser and a website with an H5P plugin. H5P empowers creatives to create rich and interactive web experiences more efficiently.

H5P is a free and open source tool that helps you create HTML5 content in the browser of your choice and share it across all operating systems and browsers. Check out the list of different content types.

As H5P is open source there are no “strings attached”. Anyone can reuse both content and technology without asking Joubel or NDLA for permission. One of the universities that have reused H5P is Colorado.

How to use H5P?

H5P is a plugin for existing CMS and Learning Management Systems (LMS) systems like WordPress and Drupal. Just install the H5P and your system becomes able to create, share, and reuse great interactive content. For systems that don’t have an H5P plugin available yet it is possible to embed content using an iframe or using the Learning Tool Interoperability (LTI) standard. With the LTI and supporting APIs and specifications embedding an externally hosted H5P authoring tool is also possible.

The H5P format is open and the tools for creating H5P content are open source. This guarantees that creatives own their own content and are not locked into the fate and licensing regime of a specific tool.

 

State of the Commons 2016-rapporten ligger klar

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Én gang om året udgiver Creative Commons rapporten ‘State of the Commons’, der tager pulsen på den globale delebevægelse og anvendelsen af Creative Commons licenserne på digitalt indhold: Fotos, tekst, film, musik og meget andet. 

Således også I år, hvor State of the Commons 2016, der dækker aktiviteter hele det forgangne år, netop er udkommet. Den viser, at 2016 uden sammenligning var det mest aktive i licensværktøjernes historie, og at nye mennesker, organisationer og virksomheder verden over tager CC-licenserne til sig i et tempo, som aldrig er set højere. Blandt de mest bemærkelsværdige fakta denne gang kan det således nævnes at det totale antal værker under CC-licens har passeret 1,2 milliarder, og ydermere at 65% af disse værker falder i open culture-kategorien, hvilket betyder de er licenseret under de to mest åbne licenser og dermed tillader både fri bearbejdning og kommerciel anvendelse.

Læs flere højdepunkter i denne blog post fra Creative Commons HQ og dyk ned i rapporten her: State of the Commons 2016. Hvis man vil læse flere perspektiveringer på rapporten, så er der rigtigt gode artikler hos eksempelvis OpenSource.com og TechDirt.

 

2.5 million Wikipedia volunteers have contributed 42.5 million articles in 294 languages.

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The release of the 2016 State of the Commons, is an annual deep dive into the global community working to promote the open and free internet. The report covering 2016 was released at the CC global summit in Toronto this weekend. I attended the conference and spoke on a panel Friday.

This year’s report goes beyond data and metrics to focus on the people that power the commons in every region of the world. These stories illustrate how our movement is growing and evolving, driven by people who choose to share. The commons continues to grow, with the total number of CC licensed works now at 1.2 billion in 2016, including the increased use of licenses that invite remix, commercial use, and collaboration — up to 65% of all content shared this year.

The commons is the largest collection of free and open knowledge in the world. In order to bring you this report, we’ve partnered with a handful of the hundreds of platforms that provide CC licensing to bring you more data and user spotlights in a new and attractive format.

The king of the commons is still Wikipedia. The world’s largest encyclopedia is completely collaborative and openly licensed, with 100% of Wikipedia articles under CC BY-SA. To date, ~2.5 million Wikipedia volunteers have contributed 42.5 million articles in 294 languages.

The number of works released under a CCO is also growing, the total number is now just shy of a 100 million. One of the contributors is The New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art releases 375,000 digital works into the public domain via CC0.

African Storybook is a project that we are collaborating with over the next years. On a continent where conventional publishing produces relatively few titles in African languages, the African Storybook initiative provides open access to thousands of picture storybooks for children’s literacy, enjoyment, and imagination.

This work is a derivative work of Creative Commons blog on Medium used under a CC BY 4.0 license.

Dansk forlag udgiver bog om Creative Commons-baserede forretningsmodeller

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Det nye danske forlag Ctrl+Alt+Delete Books udgiver i den kommende uge en bog for Creative Commons: ‘Made With Creative Commons’, som er skrevet af to af organisationens fremtrædende ansatte, Sarah Hinchliff Pearson og Paul Stacey. 

‘Made With Creative Commons’ er en bog om deling, og udspringer af en særdeles succesrig Kickstarter-kampagne, som Sarah og Paul gennemførte sidste år. Bogen handler om deling af tekst, musik, data, kunst og sætter fokus på nogle af de mennesker, organisationer og virksomheder i hele verden, som deler deres indhold ved hjælp af Creative Commons licenser, og derudover opfordrer offentligheden til at genanvende, kopiere og bearbejde deres værker. Disse værker er ‘Made With Creative Commons’.

Men hvis de giver deres indhold væk gratis, hvordan tjener de så penge?

Det er det spørgsmål som denne bog har til formål at besvare. Den indeholder 24 eksempler på forskellige måder at ernære sig på ved at dele sit indhold. Den indeholder læring om, hvordan man tjener penge, men også om, hvad deling virkelig går ud på – hvorfor vi gør det, og hvordan det kan bidrage til i økonomien og i verden i det hele taget. Fuld af praktiske tips og inspirerende historier er ‘Made With Creative Commons’ en bog som viser dig hvad det virkelig vil sige at dele.

‘Made With Creative Commons’ udkommer d. 5. maj 2017 – læs mere her.

CC Danmark til Creative Commons Global Summit i Canada

CC Danmark -

Denne kommende weekend tager CC Danmark til Toronto for at deltage i Creative Commons Global Summit, et event som hvert andet år samler det globale Creative Commons community til en konference om de udfordringer og muligheder som fremtiden bringer.

Fra CC Danmarks side er det Public Lead Christian Villum og Educational Advisor Peter Leth. Foruden møder og networking med de øvrige deltagere vil førstnævnte endvidere indgå i ét af konferencens paneldiskussioner om nye forretningsmodeller for open source hardware: “Share or Die: Is future manufacturing open source?“, som bla. bygger på Dansk Designs Centers (og dermed Christians) arbejde på REMODEL-programmet.

Hele programmet kan ses her: Creative Commons Global Summit program. Hvis du læser dette og har emner, som du synes vi bør tage op til diskussion med det globale community, så send det til os på info (a) creativecommons (dot) dk eller via Twitter direkte til Peter eller Christian.

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